SHIFT Calculator

State Highway Induced Frequency of Travel

The SHIFT calculator enables users to estimate long-run (i.e., after 5 to 10 years) induced vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and emissions impacts from capacity expansions of large roadways in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) or urbanized counties, based on existing lane mileage and vehicle miles traveled data from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).


The calculator applies to roads with Federal Highway Administration functional facility classifications of 1, 2 or 3, corresponding to interstate highways, other freeways and expressways, and other principal arterials, respectively. The calculator generates a reasonable estimate for induced vehicle miles traveled at the appropriate order of magnitude for a given area. It is not intended as a substitute for more granular traffic modeling or simulations—but rather as a tool that can effectively translate well-established induced travel demand elasticities to analysis of roadway capacity expansion impacts.

2. Choose a type of road

Key Terms and Concepts

MMT CO2e : Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent

NDC-Aligned Scenario refers to a policy scenario that is designed to meet the US target of reducing US greenhouse gas pollution 50-52 percent from 2005 levels by 2030. Notably, this scenario assumes rapid progress toward a decarbonized grid and accelerated electric vehicle adoption rates.

Business as Usual (BAU) reflects projected efficiency and electrification improvements and current policy measures.

Created in partnership with

NRDCTransportation for AmericaNational Center for Sustainable TransportationUlupono InitiativeHawaii Climate Commission
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